Day-to-day tasks – As a sport and exercise psychologist, you’ll:
help athletes develop strategies to deal with nerves, anxiety, self-confidence, concentration and motivation set up activities to improve team and individual performance support athletes in coping with injuries give advice to coaches on team communication assess clients’ needs and develop fitness plans and recommendations work with health promotion staff to show the therapeutic and health benefits of exercise create exercise programmes in organisations, workplaces, prisons and psychiatric units teach people psychological techniques to improve their wellbeing and performance
What are the three roles of sports psychology specialists?
Is an exercise and sport psychologist what I am looking for? What Do Exercise and Sport Psychologists Do? Exercise and sport psychology professionals are interested in how participation in sport, exercise, and physical activity may enhance personal development and well-being throughout the life span. Have you ever heard a coach say that a sport is 50-90 percent mental? It is this mental side of sport that exercise and sport psychology professionals work with.
Lose focus during competition. Lack confidence during games. Get scared or anxious while competing. Have trouble communicating with teammates. Choke during important competitive events. Have trouble motivating themselves in sport and exercise settings. Get angry easily when they perform below their expectations.
Are you looking for a competitive edge? Would like to learn how to have more fun while participating in sport? Are concerned with your child’s experience in youth sports? Are looking for a way to get more out of your sport or exercise experience? Then you should keep reading to help you gain useful information about exercise and sport psychology and learn about how to find an exercise and sport psychology professional to fulfill your needs.
To improve performance. This is the most common reason for consulting an exercise and sport psychology professional. In general, performance may be enhanced through the teaching of mental strategies that either refine the practices of effective performers or help other performers overcome obstacles that prevent them from reaching their potential. To deal with the pressures of competition. Athletes at all levels seek help in dealing with the pressures of competition. Such pressures may stem from parental and/or coach expectations as well as the athlete’s own expectations regarding performance. To enhance the experience of youth sport participants. Youth sport organizations may employ an exercise and sport psychology professional to educate coaches about how to increase the satisfaction and enjoyment of participants and about the coaches’ role in promoting the development of healthy self- esteem. To get psychological assistance with injury rehabilitation. People with injuries may seek assistance with adjusting to non-participant status, adhering to physical therapy, tolerating pain, or other issues. To assist with an exercise program. People who want to exercise regularly may work with an exercise and sport psychology professional to increase their motivation and help with other issues related to exercise adherence. To receive guidance in dealing with life challenges. Concerns with personal problems can adversely affect exercise and athletic performance. People often find that counseling helps to put things in perspective and allows for greater satisfaction in life, career transition, and time management. To help make the transition out of sport participation more easily. People spend a lot of time in sport, and the transition to being a non-participant can be very difficult.
What Services Can an Exercise and Sport Psychology Professional Provide? Exercise and sport psychology professionals may provide a variety of services to individuals, groups, and organizations related to the psychological factors affecting sport, exercise, physical activity and team dynamics. The most common services focus on:
Assisting with exercise adherence, communication, teamwork or program development and evaluation Teaching participants specific mental, behavioral, psychosocial and emotional control skills. They might, for example, focus on relaxation, concentration, self-talk, self-confidence, goal setting, aggression, burnout and/or the use of imagery
Exercise and sport psychology professionals who have special training or licensure in areas such as social work, counseling, counseling psychology or clinical psychology may also provide services such as diagnosis and treatment of psychological difficulties (e.g., depression, eating disorders, substance abuse), marital, family or group therapy, or the administration and interpretation of psychological tests in addition to those services listed above.
What Roles May Exercise and Sport Psychology Professionals Assume? Exercise and sport psychology professionals may be trained primarily in the sport sciences with additional training in counseling or clinical psychology, or they may be trained primarily in psychology with supplemental training in the sport sciences.
The activities of a particular exercise and sport psychology professional will vary based on the practitioner’s specific interests and training. The three major roles of an exercise and sport psychology professional are teacher, researcher, and service provider/practitioner.
- Those individuals who focus mostly on teaching and research typically teach at colleges and universities.
- In some cases, these individuals also work with athletes, coaches or other athletic personnel.
- They provide education as well as develop and implement programs designed to maximize the overall well-being of sport, exercise, and physical activity participants.
For the most part, their consultations will focus on enhancing the performance of individuals in these settings. Service providers/practitioners in exercise and sport psychology often use exercise and sport psychology concepts and principles to enhance sport, exercise and physical activity performance or enjoyment.
They spend the majority of their time working directly with individuals or groups who have asked for their help. Individuals working in this are of exercise and sport psychology may consult with a broad range of clients and often serve in educational and/or counseling roles. Many of these practitioners may have additional training in counseling or clinical psychology.
How Do I Know a Sport Psychologist Could Help Me? We can’t promise you that a sport psychologist will help you perform better. However, there is a lot of scientific evidence suggesting that exercise and sport psychology techniques help to enhance sport performance.
A large number of elite, amateur, and professional athletes work with exercise and sport psychology professionals, and talk in the media about the benefits of this work. Coaches at the high school and university levels seek exercise and sport psychology professionals to work with their athletes and teams on game preparation, team cohesion, communication skills and other areas that affect performance. Exercise and sport psychology professionals are put on staff at universities to work exclusively with athletic teams on issues such as life skills development and coping with the demands of being a student-athlete. Exercise specialists, athletic trainers, youth sport directors, corporations, and psychologists use exercise and sport psychology professionals and exercise and sport psychology techniques to improve exercise adherence, aid injury rehabilitation, educate coaches, build self-esteem, enhance group dynamics and increase program effectiveness.
Who is Considered a “Qualified” Exercise and Sport Psychology Consultant? Only those individuals with specialized training and appropriate certification and/or licensure may call themselves a sport psychologist. Anyone seeking the services of an exercise and sport psychology professional should ask about the professional’s credentials, clientele, experience, and membership in professional organizations such as the and/or the,
- A growing number of exercise and sport psychology professionals are certified by AASP.
- These professionals — who earn the designation Certified Consultant, AASP (or CC, AASP) — have met a minimum standard of education and training in the sport sciences and in psychology.
- They have also undergone an extensive review process.
The AASP certification process encourages exercise and sport psychology professionals to maintain high standards of professional and ethical conduct while giving service to others. Some exercise and sport psychology professionals may be listed on the U.S.
- Olympic Committee (USOC) Sport Psychology and Mental Training Registry, meaning that they are approved to work with Olympic athletes and national teams.
- To be on the Registry, a professional must have a doctoral degree, be a CC, AASP and a member of the American Psychological Association (APA).
- Some exercise and sport psychology professionals are also licensed psychologists.
This means that they have met the minimum educational and training requirements by their state, and have passed a comprehensive test related to the practice of psychology. These are the only people who may call themselves “psychologists”, and they would be qualified to help you with personal or clinical problems (e.g., eating disorders) in addition to problems of a purely performance nature.
- How Can I Find a Qualified Exercise and Sport Psychology Professional? Word of mouth,
- Talk to athletes and coaches who have worked with an exercise and sport psychology professional to find out how it was helpful, the types of services provided and the names of competent professionals they have worked with.
If you don’t know anyone who has worked with an exercise and sport psychology professional, check with your local college or university. Many institutions have academic programs in exercise and sport psychology and/or have exercise and sport psychology consulting arrangements established with one or more qualified professionals through their athletic department.
When should I see a sports psychologist?
The Takeaway – A sports psychologist can help you enhance your mental game so you do better at sports, exercise, or general physical activity. You don’t have to be an athlete to benefit from sports psychology. Talk to a sports psychologist if you need support and techniques to boost your mental and physical wellness.
What are the 4 C’s of sports psychology?
For Mental Toughness, Follow the Four C’s Gaining mental toughness is the key to thriving in the stressful field of veterinary medicine. Here’s how. Working in veterinary medicine sometimes requires having seriously thick skin. Verbally abusive clients, life-and-death situations and unfair online reviews can take their toll.
Whatever your age, your position on the team or the number of years you’ve worked in the field, setbacks like these can have a negative impact on your self-confidence and erode your passion for the profession. It’s crucial for veterinarians to fight back by becoming mentally tough. Mental toughness is the capacity to work hard to reach your goals while quickly recovering from adversity or failure.
It is the inner drive that motivates you to stick to your long-term passions and goals. This applies to completing school, working in a stressful profession and achieving success. It means keeping your chin up when an irate client vents online and calls you names.
Do You Have Emotional Intelligence? The Secret to Achieving Your Goals
Confidence According to financial guru Robert Kiyosaki, “Confidence comes from discipline and training.” Having confidence means believing in yourself. It’s knowing deep down that you will reach your goals. True confidence also means not giving up when things become challenging or don’t go as smoothly as you had hoped.
Being confident means having solid social skills, being able to speak in public with poise and communicating well with others. Challenge Challenge is something that many people are afraid of or try to avoid at all costs. Yet a mentally tough person welcomes a challenge. Life is a marathon, not a sprint.
The idea here is that “what doesn’t kill you makes you stronger.” Whether the outcome is good or bad, challenges often teach us a lesson. Mentally tough people thrive on challenges and see them as an opportunity to learn and grow. Control Don’t waste your time complaining about what you can’t control.
This is largely a mindset issue, which is intertwined with confidence. Mentally tough people believe they have control over their life, their attitude and their life’s outcomes. Despite curveballs and missteps, they persevere until they reach their goals. Commitment Tough people are committed to achieving the outcomes they desire.
Commitment, or “stickability,” means setting up specific goals and doing whatever it takes to achieve them, despite setbacks, critics and occasional failures. Failure doesn’t define who you are. Failing only means that you need to improve certain skills.
- If you are committed to overcoming this temporary situation, success is around the corner.
- Eep Working Mental toughness has been studied extensively in athletes.
- Clough’s work is different because it considers other professions.
- His work shows that mental toughness helps to buffer stress, which is so prevalent in the veterinary field.
Mental toughness is an important leadership quality. However, leaders are not born with this trait. It’s a characteristic developed over time. If you work on improving each of the four C’s in your life, one at a time, you will progressively become a compassionate yet tough professional.
Elly Serfas, a certified veterinary technician in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, contributed to this article. Dr. Zeltzman is a board-certified veterinary surgeon and serial entrepreneur. His traveling surgery practice takes him all over Eastern Pennsylvania and Western New Jersey. You can visit his websites at and,
: For Mental Toughness, Follow the Four C’s
What are the big 5 sports psychology?
Personality Traits – The Big Five model describes five dimensions of personality: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to experience. Extroversion implies that individuals are sociable, while introversion implies that they are quiet and reserved ( John et al., 2008 ).
Extraversion is characterized by openness, assertiveness, and a high level of energy ( John et al., 1991 ). Persons with a high score on extraversion are more open, more persistent, more talkative, and more social than those with a low score on extraversion, who are shy, quiet, and aloof ( Larsen and Buss, 2009 ).
Extraversion is associated with values of achievement and hedonism ( Roccas et al., 2002 ), but also with goals relating to an exciting lifestyle ( Roberts et al., 2004 ). Agreeableness means that persons are cooperative and kind, and not rough ( John et al., 2008 ).
This dimension is characterized by benevolence and trust. It can be seen as a combination of friendship and harmonization ( John et al., 1991 ). Persons with a high score in this dimension are warm, sympathetic, and honest, while persons with a low score in this dimension are unkind, often rude, and sometimes even cruel ( Larsen and Buss, 2009 ).
Agreeableness is associated with harmonious family relationships, good partnership relationships ( Roberts et al., 2004 ), but also with prosocial values ( Haslam et al., 2009 ). Conscientiousness is characterized by orderliness, responsibility, and reliability; hence this trait is sometimes called reliability, as well ( John et al., 1991 ).
- Conscientious persons are hardworking, disciplined, pedantic, and they devote a lot of time to organization.
- These are persons who are intrinsically motivated and who make a lot of effort to be successful in what they do ( Larsen and Buss, 2009 ).
- Conscientiousness is associated with goals of achievement ( Costa and McCrae, 1988 ), but also with goals relating to interpersonal relationships ( Roberts et al., 2004 ).
Therefore, it can be said that conscientious persons are oriented toward goals, the execution of a task, and that they are reliable and punctual thereby ( Larsen and Buss, 2009 ). Neuroticism is characterized by uneasiness and a polar opposite of emotional stability ( John et al., 1991 ) and such individuals are prone to experiencing anxiety, depression, and irritation ( John et al., 2008 ).
Persons with a high score on neuroticism are insecure, often have mood swings, while emotionally stable people are calmer, more relaxed, and more stable ( Larsen and Buss, 2009 ). Also, a high score on neuroticism suggests suggestibility or susceptibility to suggestion, lack of persistence against obstacles, dragginess, and poor fluency, or the existence of rigidity.
Also, characteristics of neuroticism include the feeling of inferiority, nervousness, avoidance and intolerance of effort, dissatisfaction, sensitivity, irritability, and touchiness. On the other hand, emotional stability is associated with strategy, i.e., the way in which a person overcomes stress and various obstacles in life ( Larsen and Buss, 2009 ).
- Emotionally stable persons do not get disturbed, except when the issues in question are very strong stressors for them personally.
- Emotionally stable persons can experience neurosis symptoms only when in a situation of long-term and strong stress ( Larsen and Buss, 2009 ).
- Openness to experience is characterized by originality, curiosity, and ingenuity.
This factor is sometimes called culture because of its emphasis on intellect and independence ( John et al., 1991 ). Individuals open to experience have broad interests and a fine taste for art and beauty ( John et al., 2008 ). Persons with a high score in this dimension are creative, imaginative, and since they have a broad range of interests, like to explore the unknown, while persons with low scores in this dimension are of conventional appearance and behaviors, narrowed interests, prone to conservative attitudes, and tend to prefer what is already known in relation to the unknown ( Larsen and Buss, 2009 ).
What are sports psychologists most concerned with?
A Definition of Exercise and Sport Psychology – Exercise and sport psychology is a relatively new area of application within the field of psychology, having only come into its own in the past four to five decades. The field is essentially a blend or amalgam of two domains, the broad area of psychology and the narrower domains of exercise and sport, and it is not unusual to see the professionals in the area referred to as sport psychologists, sport and exercise psychologists, and exercise and sport psychologists.
- The shorter version, sport psychologist, will be used throughout this article in the interest of parsimony, but the reader should always keep in mind that there is no intent whatsoever to diminish the importance of exercise in the total equation.
- One of the major exercise and sport psychology professional organizations to be discussed later, Division 47 of the American Psychological Association (APA), indicates on its website ( http://www.apa47.org ) that “Exercise and sport psychology is the scientific study of the psychological factors that are associated with participation and performance in sport, exercise, and other types of physical activity.
Sport psychologists are interested in two main areas: (a) helping athletes use psychological principles to achieve optimal mental health and to improve performance (performance enhancement) and (b) understanding how participation in sport, exercise, and physical activity affects an individual’s psychological development, health, and well-being throughout the life span.” Read full chapter URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123750006003438
What is the highest paid sports psychologist?
Sport Psychologist Salary
|Annual Salary||Monthly Pay|
Is sports psychology useful?
Why is sports psychology so important? – Competitors are under immense physical and emotional stress, They feel the pressure of coaches and their teams and the pressure they put on themselves. This kind of chronic stress can distract competitors from their goals,
- And, if left untreated, it can lead to harmful mental and physical health issues.
- Sports psychologists take a holistic approach to each client’s health.
- They consider an individual’s physical abilities alongside their mental roadblocks.
- They then look for ways to improve mental toughness and athletic performance simultaneously.
Sports psychology benefits the whole person by encompassing both psychology and physical performance. Some benefits of sports psychology include:
Reduced anxiety Effective stress-management techniques Increased drive A healthier perspective of self and one’s abilities Improved athletic performance
Are sports psychologists interested in depression?
Frequently Asked Questions –
Why is sports psychology important? Sports psychology offers athletes many benefits, from improved performance to a healthier mental recovery after sustaining a physical injury. It can help these athletes stay engaged in the sports they love. Sports psychology also offers benefits for non-athletes, such as by helping them stick to an exercise program. Getting regular exercise improves brain health, reduces the risk of disease, strengthens bones and muscles, and makes it easier to maintain a healthy weight—while also increasing longevity. How does sports psychology help athletes? Different sports psychology techniques work in different ways. Some are used to promote self-confidence. Others are designed to reduce anxiety. Though they all have one goal in common and that goal is to help the athlete improve their performance. What can you do with a sports psychology degree? Sports psychologists can take a few different career paths. If you want to teach athletes how to improve their performance through psychological techniques, you can do this as an educational sports psychologist. If you want to work with athletes who have a mental illness, a clinical sports psychologist offers this service. If you want to work with the everyday exerciser versus athletes, becoming an exercise psychologist might be a good career choice for you. Where can you study sports psychology? A number of colleges and universities offer a sports psychology program. Some are undergraduate programs, offering a bachelor’s degree in sports psychology. Others are higher-level programs, providing a master’s degree or above. Depending on the educational institution, you may also be able to study sports psychology online. How can sports psychology improve performance? In some cases, sports psychology improves performance by reducing anxiety. In others, it works by improving focus or increasing mental toughness. A sports psychologist can help uncover issues that might be limiting the athlete’s performance. This information is then used to determine which psychological techniques can offer the best results.
What is an example of sport psychology?
Sports psychology acknowledges the major impact of emotional and psychological factors can have on athletes competing in sports. For example, confidence, self-esteem, motivation, and determination are just a few of the psychological components that can influence how an individual athlete or team performs.
How do sports psychologist measure personality?
Performance Strategies – Using these tools, athletes may gauge their present skill level and/or effectiveness in developing the mental toughness required for their particular activity. You may use them to train athletes’ mental toughness as well as their physical toughness.
All the aforementioned methods are all surveys meant to quantify aspects of an athlete’s personality, and they all employ self-reported data. Sports personality may also be assessed by other methods, including questionnaires. In addition, observable behaviors may be used to build a shared language and assess psychological abilities in people and teams.
Establishing reliable metrics for evaluating top performance is especially challenging when it comes to personality. But in terms of what coaches want to see around, they just need to express the sorts of behaviors they’d want to see via a certification process (as opposed to typical quantification processes).
Quoting statistics is different from measuring qualification, but defining the behaviors they want to observe is straightforward. Another important method of measuring personality in sport is by using psychophysiological measurements like heart rate variability in skill training programs. HeartMath, for instance, has worked well for certain athletes who want to learn more about their emotional management via breathing, but there are many more choices out there.
An athlete’s improvement may be monitored over time using HeartMath’s accompanying numbers to support their new behavior. Questionnaires are based on perception, while observable behaviors and psychophysiological tests are more objective. However, the purpose of the measurement must be established before the measurement begins.
What does ABC stand for in sport psychology?
ABC is an acronym for Antecedents, Behavior, Consequences.
What are the learning styles in sport psychology?
These include visual learners, auditory learners, kinesthetic learners, and thinkers. While considering these modes, coaches should also consider that with maturity, players will often change which modes are more utilized.
What are the stages of sport psychology?
This month’s edition of Sports Psychology is for the coaches and individual athletes who want to plan for success and find ways to evaluate where to adjust if needed. This is the first article in a four part series. Building a Successful Team Every team has an opportunity to solidify their mark on the legacy of their program.
- It’s important to establish a unique identity through the mission and team values they deem most important to their own success for the upcoming season.
- The team’s success each year largely depends on the roles and norms that the coaches set for the team, empowering athletes to find their place within the culture that has been established.
The coaches also need to lead and act in a way that is highly conducive to establishing a sense of cohesion. Depending on if the sport is team- or individual-based, the coach will need to find ways to connect the athletes both socially and through their sport skills.
The most common model of team development was created by Tuckman (1965). He proposed that all teams go through four stages: forming, storming, norming, and performing, All the stages are necessary for a team to develop, address challenges and conflict, tackle problems, and deliver their best possible results.
Although this is thought of as a linear model to team development, it is important to understand that each stage varies in the amount of time a team experiences them. They may move forwards or backwards from one to the next. Think about what might influence your team to go through these stages, in which order, and for how long. Forming: Creating a Cohesive Unit Let’s focus on the forming stage: The forming stage is where the teambuilding begins. Your team is most likely still forming if your athletes are operating quite independently, are not showing that they trust one another, or are not necessarily clear on their role or how they fit in with the team.
- The athletes are probably comparing their skills to each other’s and deciding whether they can relate with their teammates to form some connections within the sport environment and out.
- The forming stage is a critical time for a coach to establish rapport with the athletes as well.
- Coaches can observe how individuals respond to different levels of pressure in practice.
During this early stage, coaches should establish clear expectations of the athletes as members of the program and what the athletes can expect of the coaches in their roles. This type of open communication clears blurred lines and boundaries for all involved to add clarity.
Coaches should also schedule one-on-one meetings with their athletes to explain how they view the athletes role on this year’s team and the best way that athlete can contribute to the team’s success. This conversation should include sport position and social position, especially with the established leaders and captains of the team.
Every team needs captains as leaders, but try to establish leaders both formally and informally so that the athletes can positively influence one another in practice, at school, and outside of the team environment. The Team Charter One way to move through the forming stage successfully is to create a team charter with the athletes.
- Everyone from the team should be involved in this process of creating the team charter so that a sense of ownership and pride is felt in the finished product.
- A team charter outlines the ultimate goals for the season, the roles of every member on the team, the expectations and norms of behavior for every member, and any mantras or mission statements that will be the underlying factors driving the team forward.
Creating the team charter on a large poster board with every team member’s signature as a sign of their commitment provides a great reminder of how and why your team was formed when it is posted in a visible location for the team. Remember that the forming stage for your team may take some time to establish but your athletes will be very excited for the clarity and transparency that it helps create. Want to learn more? Follow the articles below for the whole story! Stage 2: Storming & Case Studies Stage 3: Norming & Case Studies Stage 4: Performing & Case Studies About the author: Brian Alexander is a mental skills coach who combines eight years of experience as an Olympic level water polo athlete, a master’s degree in sport psychology, and business leadership training and coaching from The Ken Blanchard Companies to partner with athletes and performers of all ages and levels.
What are the two main areas of sport psychology?
About – Email List History Athlete Activism APA Sport Proficiency Additional Resources Students Exercise psychology and sport psychology involve the scientific study of the psychological factors that are associated with participation and performance in sport, exercise and other types of physical activity.
What is smart in sports psychology?
Setting “SMART” Goals – We call the process that we have just described SMART goal setting. In this case, SMART is an acronym for the parts of the process. Whenever you set a goal, you can check it against the SMART criteria: s pecific, m easurable, a chievable, r ealistic, and t ime-tabled.
Specific means that your goal states exactly what you wish to change and improve. Measurable means that you can easily see if you have made progress. Achievable means that your goal is possible to achieve. Realistic means that your goal is challenging but it is within your control to achieve it. Finally, time-tabled means that you set time boundaries around your goal.
Goal setting is SMART when everything is flexible and adjusts to your individual needs, the goal being pursued, and your personal environment. If you wish to improve your forehand in tennis, then it does not matter whether you are a professional tennis player or child in a local tennis club; setting goals gives you a helpful target that you can translate into daily actions to follow.
- The SMART technique works for individuals with different personalities and cultural backgrounds,
- SMART goal setting provides a formula for achieving the goals that are important to you, using the strengths you already have! Goal setting is a game with two halves: the first half is to set a goal; the second half is to achieve it.
In the game of goal setting, much of what happens in the second half depends upon the thinking and planning that occurs in the first half. To set goals, you often must think about the past as a guide to your future. Unfortunately, people can become prisoners of their stories, which can prevent them from achieving their goals.
We might tell ourselves stories like, “It is impossible for me to succeed—I do not have the skills;” or, “Children who live where I live do not become professional athletes.” We carry these stories with us through our lives, but they are often untrue. For example, you cannot be certain that becoming a professional athlete is not possible for you.
You might be the one person from your community who becomes a professional athlete, but you would never realize this possibility unless you kept moving toward your goal each day. The mental endurance to keep progressing toward a goal is often what separates athletes who succeed from athletes who do not.
What are the main areas of sport psychology?
Skills and Procedures Utilized – Many strategies and procedures are used to address problems faced by athletes and other sports participants. Some of the principal areas include:
Cognitive and behavioral skills training for performance enhancement, Goal setting; imagery and performance planning; concentration and attention control strategies; development of self-confidence, self-esteem and competence in sports; cognitive-behavioral self-regulation techniques; emotion management, sportsmanship and leadership skills. Counseling and clinical interventions, Athletic motivation; eating disorders and weight management; substance abuse; grief, depression, loss and suicide; over-training and burnout; sexual identity issues; aggression and violence; athletic injury and rehabilitation; career transitions and identity crises. Consultation and training, Team building; sports organization consultation; systems interventions with parents and families involved in youth sports participation; education of coaches regarding motivation, interpersonal and leadership skills and talent development; education of coaches and administrators regarding early identification and prevention of psychological difficulties.
: Sport Psychology